Macroautophagy (hereafter called autophagy) is a vacuolar lysosomal pathway for degradation of intracellular material in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy plays crucial roles in tissue homeostasis, in adaptation to stress situations, and in immune and inflammatory responses. Alteration of autophagy is associated with cancer, diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, autoimmune disease, infection, and chronic inflammatory disease. Autophagy is controlled by autophagy-related (ATG) proteins that act in a coordinated manner to build up the initial autophagic vacuole named the autophagosome. It is now known that the activities of ATG proteins are modulated by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation. Moreover, transcriptional and epigenetic controls are involved in the regulation of autophagy in stress situations. Here we summarize and discuss how posttranslational modifications and transcriptional and epigenetic controls regulate the involvement of autophagy in the proteostasis network.
- posttranslational modifications
↵* This review is part of a Theme series: The Control of the Proteostasis Network in Health and Diseases.
- Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society