NOX2-dependent ROS is required for HDAC5 nuclear efflux and contributes to HDAC4 nuclear efflux during intense repetitive activity of fast skeletal muscle fibers

Yewei Liu, Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa, William R. Randall, Martin F. Schneider


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to oxidation and nuclear efflux of class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in cardiac muscle. Here we use HDAC-GFP fusion proteins expressed in isolated adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers to study ROS mediation of HDAC localization in skeletal muscle. H2O2 causes nuclear efflux of HDAC4-GFP or HDAC5-GFP, which is blocked by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Repetitive stimulation with 100-ms trains at 50 Hz, 2/s (“50-Hz trains”) increased ROS production and caused HDAC4-GFP or HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux. During 50-Hz trains, HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux was completely blocked by NAC, but HDAC4-GFP nuclear efflux was only partially blocked by NAC and partially blocked by the calcium-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-62. Thus, during intense activity both ROS and CaMK play roles in nuclear efflux of HDAC4, but only ROS mediates HDAC5 nuclear efflux. The 10-Hz continuous stimulation did not increase the rate of ROS production and did not cause HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux but promoted HDAC4-GFP nuclear efflux that was sensitive to KN-62 but not NAC and thus mediated by CaMK but not by ROS. Fibers from NOX2 knockout mice lacked ROS production and ROS-dependent nuclear efflux of HDAC5-GFP or HDAC4-GFP during 50-Hz trains but had unmodified Ca2+ transients. Our results demonstrate that ROS generated by NOX2 could play important roles in muscle remodeling due to intense muscle activity and that the nuclear effluxes of HDAC4 and HDAC5 are differentially regulated by Ca2+ and ROS during muscle activity.

  • reactive oxygen species
  • class IIa histone deacetylases 4 and 5
  • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases
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