Extracellular ATP and ADP have been shown to exhibit potent angiogenic effects on pulmonary artery adventitial vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC). However, the molecular signaling mechanisms of extracellular nucleotide-mediated angiogenesis remain not fully elucidated. Since elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is required for cell proliferation and occurs in response to extracellular nucleotides, this study was undertaken to delineate the purinergic receptor subtypes involved in Ca2+ signaling and extracellular nucleotide-mediated mitogenic responses in VVEC. Our data indicate that stimulation of VVEC with extracellular ATP resulted in the elevation of [Ca2+]i via Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane channels as well as Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. Moreover, extracellular ATP induced simultaneous Ca2+ responses in both cytosolic and nuclear compartments. An increase in [Ca2+]i was observed in response to a wide range of purinergic receptor agonists, including ATP, ADP, ATPγS, ADPβS, UTP, UDP, 2-methylthio-ATP (MeSATP), 2-methylthio-ADP (MeSADP), and BzATP, but not adenosine, AMP, diadenosine tetraphosphate, αβMeATP, and βγMeATP. Using RT-PCR, we identified mRNA for the P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y13, P2Y14, P2X2, P2X5, P2X7, A1, A2b, and A3 purinergic receptors in VVEC. Preincubation of VVEC with the P2Y1 selective antagonist MRS2179 and the P2Y13 selective antagonist MRS2211, as well as with pertussis toxin, attenuated at varying degrees agonist-induced intracellular Ca2+ responses and activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and S6 ribosomal protein, indicating that P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors play a major role in VVEC growth responses. Considering the broad physiological implications of purinergic signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis, our findings suggest that P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors may represent novel and specific targets for treatment of pathological vascular remodeling involving vasa vasorum expansion.
- extracellular nucleotides
- intracellular calcium
- pulmonary hypertension
- Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society