In Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis, oxidants are generated through the interactions of bacteria in the lumen, activated granulocytes, and cells of the gastric mucosa. In this study we explored the ability of one such class of oxidants, represented by monochloramine (NH2Cl), to serve as agonists of Ca2+ accumulation within the parietal cell of the gastric gland. Individual gastric glands isolated from rabbit mucosa were loaded with fluorescent reporters for Ca2+ in the cytoplasm (fura-2 AM) or intracellular stores (mag-fura-2 AM). Conditions were adjusted to screen out contributions from metal cations such as Zn2+, for which these reporters have affinity. Exposure to NH2Cl (up to 200 μM) led to dose-dependent increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), in the range of 200–400 nM above baseline levels. These alterations were prevented by pretreatment with the oxidant scavenger vitamin C or a thiol-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), which shields intracellular thiol groups from oxidation by chlorinated oxidants. Introduction of vitamin C during ongoing exposure to NH2Cl arrested but did not reverse accumulation of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm. In contrast, introduction of DTT or N-acetylcysteine permitted arrest and partial reversal of the effects of NH2Cl. Accumulation of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm induced by NH2Cl is due to release from intracellular stores, entry from the extracellular fluid, and impaired extrusion. Ca2+-handling proteins are susceptible to oxidation by chloramines, leading to sustained increases in [Ca2+]i. Under certain conditions, NH2Cl may act not as an irritant but as an agent that activates intracellular signaling pathways. Anti-NH2Cl strategies should take into account different effects of oxidant scavengers and thiol-reducing agents.
- Helicobacter pylori
- oxidative stress
- Copyright © 2007 the American Physiological Society