It was previously reported that insulin biosynthesis in mouse beta TC3 cells was regulated by glucose (Nagamatsu, S., and D. F. Steiner. Endocrinology 130: 748-754, 1992). In the present study, we examined the effect of glucose on the glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activities and determined the relationship between them and glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis in beta TC3 cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed that beta TC3 cells expressed GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 glucose transporter mRNAs, but not GLUT-2. The levels of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 mRNAs were not affected by glucose (0 or 11 mM glucose) over a period of 48 h. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled beta TC3 cells with specific antibodies against GLUT-1 or GLUT-3 proteins revealed no effect of glucose on the biosynthesis of glucose transporters. Hexokinase [low Michaelis constant (Km) hexokinase] activity from cells incubated in 11 mM glucose for 48 h increased nearly twofold compared with cells maintained in 0 mM glucose, although the amount of cellular hexokinase protein detected by immunoblot analysis was unchanged between 0 and 11 mM glucose conditions. Glucokinase (high Km hexokinase) activity, in contrast, was not affected by glucose. Preincubation of beta TC3 cells with 2-deoxyglucose to inhibit hexokinase, thereby inhibiting all glycolysis, resulted in the decrease of glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. Thus, in mouse beta TC3 cells that do not express GLUT-2, there is a close relationship between hexokinase activity and glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis, but not between the glucose transporter and glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis.
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